Civil Engineering ⇒ Topic : Surveying and its principles
|Surveying is the science of determining relative
positions of objects on the surface of the earth by
taking measurements of distances, directions, and
elevations and plotting them to convenient
reduced size on papers.|
Basic principles : 1. Locating a point on the surface of the earth by at least two reference points.
2. Working from whole to the part. In this system first a system of control points are fixed with great precision.
|Surveying is the science of map making. To start any development activity, the relative positions
of various objects in the area with respect to horizontal and vertical axes through a reference point
is required. This is achieved by surveying the area. Earlier, the conventional instruments like
chain, tape and levelling instruments were used. In this electronic era, modern electronic equipments
like electronic distance meters (EDM) and total stations are used, to get more accurate results
Preparing topo maps of talukas, districts, states and countries and showing all important features like rivers, hills, forests, lakes, towns and cities in plan and elevation (by contour lines) also forms part of surveying. When maps of large areas are to be made corrections for earth curvature are to be made for all measurements. Such survey is called geodetic surveying also.
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