Electrical Engineering ⇒ Topic : Bilateral and Unilateral circuit

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In the bilateral element, the voltagecurrent relation is the same for current flowing in either direction. In contrast, a unilateral element has different relations between voltage and current for the two possible directions of current. Examples of bilateral elements are elements made of high conductivity materials in general. Vacuum diodes, silicon diodes, and metal rectifiers are examples of unilateral elements.  
 
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In the nineteenth century, a German philosopher, George Simon Ohm discovered that the current through a conductor, under constant temperature conditions, was proportional to the potential difference across the conductor. Expressed as an equation, Ohm's law become / = V where, / is the current in amperes, Vis the potential difference in volts and R is the resistance in ohms. This fact can be demonstrated by connecting a voltage source (V), an ammeter (A) and a load. Different currents can be obtained by varying the load resistance. For example, if the voltage across the load is 12 V and the load resistance is 3 S2, the current through the circuit is 12/3 = 4 A. If the load resistance remains constant at 3 S2, in accordance with Ohm's law, the current will double if the voltage doubles or will reduce to half if the voltage is reduced by half. Thus, if the voltage across the load reduces to zero, the current also becomes zero.  
 
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