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What is Cavitation and disadvantages of Cavitation?
The formation of air bubbles and water vapour on the water surface due to the reduction in the pressure is called "Cavitation". When the pressure on the water reduces below the saturation pressure corresponding to the temperature of the water, the rapid formation of the water vapour and air bubbles starts. The bubbles suddenly collapse with the violent action and this collapsing pressure will be very high. The rapid formation and collapsing of bubbles causes the pitting of the metal surface. Cavitation also reduces the efficiency of the hydraulic prime mover causing the honey-combing of runner and blade contours which reduces the power output.