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What is water hammering phenomenon?
When the load on the generator reduces suddenly, governor mechanism will close the turbine gates and thus create an increased pressure in the penstock. This results in ' water hammering phenomenon' and may need pipe (penstock) of extra ordinary strength to withstand the pressure otherwise the penstock will burst. To avoid this positive water hammering pressure some means are provided to take the rejected flow. This job will be carried out by small storage tank or reservoir for receiving the rejected flow. This storage reservoir or tank is called as 'surge tank'