**[Punjab Technical University (PTU)]**

**Choose subject below :-**

**1 - Fluid Mechanics-1**

**2 - Rock Mechanics And Engineering Geology**

**3 - Strength Of Materials**

**4 - Surveying**

**5 - Building Materials And Construction**

**[ Fluid Mechanics-1 ]**

**Fluid and their properties : **Concept of fluid, difference between solids, liquids and gases;
ideal and real fluids; Continuum concept of fluid: density, specific weight and relative density;
viscosity and its dependence on temperature; surface tension and capillarity, vapor pressure and cavitation, compressibility band bulk modulus; Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids [also see].

**Fluid Statics : **Concept of pressure, Pascal’s law and its engineering hydrostatic paradox.
Action of fluid pressure on plane (horizontal, vertical and inclined) submerged surface, resultant
force and center of pressure , force on a curved surface due to hydrostatic pressure. Buoyancy
and flotation, stability of floating and submerged bodies, Meta centric height and its
determination.
**Fluid Kinematics :** Classification of fluid flows, velocity and acceleration of fluid particle, local
and convective acceleration, normal & tangential acceleration streamline, pathline and
streakline, flow rate and discharge mean velocity continuity equation in Cartesian co-ordinates.
Rotational flows- Rotational velocity and circulation, stream & velocity potential functions.
**Fluid Dynamics :- **Euler’s equation, Bernoulli’s equation and steady flow energy
equation;representation of energy changes in fluid system, impulse momentum equation, kinetic
energy and momentum correction factors, flow along a curved streamline, free and forced vortex
motions.**Dimensional Analysis and Similitude :** Fundamental and derived units and dimensions,
dimensional homogeneity, Rayleigh’s and Buckingham’s Pi method for dimensional analysis,
dimension less number and their significance, geometric, kinematic and dynamic similarity,
model studies.
**Flow Past immersed bodies : **Drag and lift deformation Drag and pressure drag. Drag on a
sphere,cylinder and Airfoil: lift-Magnus Effect and circulation, lift on a circular cylinder.
**Flow Measurement :** Manometers, Pitot tubes, venturimeter and orifice meters, orifices, mouth
pieces, notches ( Rectangular and V-notches) and weirs ( Sharp crested Weirs).

**[ Rock Mechanics And Engineering Geology ]**

**General Geology :**Importance of Engg. Geology applied to Civil Engg. Practices. Weathering, definition, types and effect. Geological works of rivers, wind, glaciers as agents of erosion, transportation and deposition.

**Rocks & Minerals :**Minerals, their identification, igneous, sedimentary & metamorphic rocks. Classification of rocks for engineering purposes. Rock quality designation (RQD).

**Structural Geology:**Brief idea about stratification, apparent dip, true dip, strike and in conformities. Folds, faults & joints : definition, classification relation to engineering operations.

**Engineering Geology:**Geological considerations in the Engg. Projects like tunnels, highways, foundation, dams, reservoirs. Earthquake : Definition, terminology, earthquake waves, intensity, recording of earthquake.

**Engineering properties of rocks and laboratory measurement :**Uniaxial compression test, tensile tests, permeability test, shear tests, size and shape of specimen rate of testing. Confining pressure, stress strain curves of typical rocks. Strength of intact and fissured rocks, effect of anisotropy, effect of saturation and temperature

**In-situ determination of Engg. Properties of Rock masses :**Necessity of in-situ tests, uniaxial load tests in tunnels and open excavations, cable tests, flat jack test, shear test, pressure tunnel test. Simple methods of determining in situ stresses,bore hole test

**Improvement in properties of Rock masses :**Pressure grouting for dams and tunnels, rock reinforcement rock bolting.

**[ Strength Of Materials ]**

**Concept of Equilibrium:** Load, reaction; General equilibrium equations; Equilibrium of a point
in space; Equilibrium of a member; Concept of free body diagrams; Displacements; Concept of
displacement-constraints/ supports; Statical-determinacy of a problem.
**Simple Stress and Strains: **Introduction; Concept of stress and strain; Stress-strain curves for
ductile, brittle materials; Generalized Hooke’s law, Stress-strain diagram of ductile and brittle
material, statically determinate and indeterminate problems, compound and composite bars,
thermal stresses. Elastic constants, relations between various elastic constants and its use;
Lateral strain, volumetric strain, poisons ratio; Stress and strains in thin cylinders, spherical
shells; Thin vassals subjected to internal pressures.**Complex stress and strains: **Introduction; Normal stress, tangential stress; Rectangular block
subjected to normal stress along and across two planes, combination of normal and tangential
stress; Concept of principal stress and its computation; Mohr circle; Principal strains,
computation of principal stresses from the principal strains.
**Shear force and Bending moment diagrams:** Introduction to the concept of reaction
diagrams—shear force and bending moment; Role of sign conventions; Types of load, beams,
supports; Shear force and bending moment diagrams: simply supported, overhang and cantilever
beams subjected to any combination of point loads, uniformly distributed and varying load, and
moment; Relationship between load, shear force and bending moment; Different methods for
plotting a bending moment and shear force diagrams.
**Bending and Shear Stresses:** Introduction; Assumptions and derivation of flexural formula for
straight beams; Centroid of simple and built up section, second moment of area; Bending stress
calculation for beams of simple and built up section, composite sections (flitched sections);
Shear stress; Variation of bending and shear stress along the depth of section.
**Columns and Struts:** Stability of Columns; Buckling load of an axially loaded columns with
various end conditions; Euler’s and Rankine’s formula; Columns under eccentric load, lateral
load.
Torsion of Circular shafts: Torsion, basic assumptions, derivation of torsion equation; Power
transmitted by shafts; analysis and design of solid and Hollow shafts based on strength and
stiffness; Sections under combined bending and torsion, equivalent bending and torsion.
**Failure theories:** Maximum principal stress theory, Maximum shear stress theory, Distortion
Energy theory, Strain Energy theory, Constant Analysis of Thin Cylinder

**[ Surveying ]**

**Introduction:**Definition, principles of surveying, different types of surveys, topographical map, scale of map.

**Chain and Compass Surveying:**Measurement of distances with chain and tape, direct & indirect ranging, offsets, bearing and its measurement with prismatic compass, calculation of angles from bearings.

**Plane Table Surveying:**Setting up the plane table and methods of plane tabling.

**Levelling & Contouring:**Setting up a dumpy level, booking and reducing the levels by rise & fall method and height of instrument method, correction due to curvature and refraction, characteristics of contours, methods of contouring, uses of contour maps.

**Theodolite Traversing:**Temporary and permanent adjustments, measurement of horizontal and vertical angles, adjustment of closing error by Bowditch & Transit rules.

**Tachometry:**Definition, determination of tachometer constants and reduced level from tachometric observations.

**Triangulation:**Selection of stations and base line, corrections for base line, satellite station and reduction to centre.

**Curves:**Elements of a simple curve, different methods of setting out of simple circular curve.

**[ Building Materials And Construction ]**

**Building Stones & Bricks:**General , Characteristics of a good building stone, Deterioration and preservation of stones, Artificial Stones , Composition of good brick earth, Qualities of good bricks, Classification of bricks, Tests on bricks, Varieties of fire bricks.

**Cement:**Composition of cement, Raw Materials, Manufacturing process, Varieties of cement, Hydration of cement, Properties , testing of cement.

**Concrete :**Introduction, Constituents of concrete, Batching of materials, Manufacturing process of cement concrete, workability and factors affecting it, Methods to determine workability, segregation and bleeding of concrete, Strength of concrete and factors affecting it.

**Timber:**Structure of a tree , classification of trees, Defects in timber, Qualities of good a timber, Seasoning of timber , Decay of timber, Preservation of timber

**Miscellaneous materials:**Paints, Distempering, Glass, Plastics.

**Foundation and Walls :**Definition, types of foundations, causes of failures of foundation and remedial measures ,Types of walls and thickness considerations.

**Brick and stone masonry:**Terms used, Types of bonds & their merits and demerits, rubble and ashlar joints in stone masonry, cement concrete hollow blocks and their advantages and disadvantage.

**Damp Proofing:**Sources, causes and bad effects of dampness, preventive measures for dampness in buildings.

**Roofs:**Terms used, Classification of roofs and roof trusses, Different roof covering materials.

**Plastering and pointing:**Objects ,Methods of plastering , Materials and types, Defects in plastering, Special material for plastered surface, Distempering white washing and colour washing.

**Floors:**General ,Types of floors used in building & and their suitability, factors for selecting suitable floor for building.

**Miscellaneous topics:**Building Services – Plumbing service, Electrical services, Air conditioning, Accoustics and sound insulation, Fire protection measures, Lift