1  Applied Mechanics
2  Fluid Mechanics
3  Surveying  1
[ Applied Mechanics ]
 Introduction:
 Concept of engineering mechanics definition of mechanics, statics, dynamics, application of engineering mechanics in practical fields. Definition of Applied Mechanics.
 Definition, basic quantities and derived quantities of basic units and derived units
 Different systems of units (FPS, CGS, MKS and SI) and their conversion from one to another for density, force, pressure, work, power, velocity, acceleration
 Concept of rigid body, scalar and vector quantities

Laws of forces
 Definition of force, measurement of force in SI units, its representation, types of force: Point force/concentrated force & Uniformly distributed force, effects of force, characteristics of a force
 Different force systems (coplanar and noncoplanar), principle of transmissibility of forces, law of superposition
 Composition and resolution of coplanar concurrent forces, resultant force, method of composition of forces, laws of forces, triangle law of forces, polygon law of forces  graphically, analytically, resolution of forces, resolving a force into two rectangular components
 Free body diagram
 Equilibrant force and its determination
 Lami's theorem (concept only)
 [Simple problems on above topics]

Moment
 Concept of moment
 Moment of a force and units of moment
 Varignon's theorem (definition only)
 Principle of moment and its applications (Levers – simple and compound, steel yard, safety valve, reaction at support)
 Parallel forces (like and unlike parallel force), calculating their resultant
 Concept of couple, its properties and effects
 General conditions of equilibrium of bodies under coplanar forces
 Position of resultant force by moment
 [Simple problems on the above topics]

Friction
 Definition and concept of friction, types of friction, force of friction
 Laws of static friction, coefficient of friction, angle of friction, angle of repose, cone of friction
 Equilibrium of a body lying on a horizontal plane, equilibrium of a body lying on a rough inclined plane.
 Calculation of least force required to maintain equilibrium of a body on a rough inclined plane subjected to a force:
a) Acting along the inclined plane Horizontally
b) At some angle with the inclined plane

Centre of Gravity
 Concept, definition of centroid of plain figures and centre of gravity of symmetrical solid bodies
 Determination of centroid of plain and composite lamina using moment method only, centroid of bodies with removed portion
 Determination of center of gravity of solid bodies  cone, cylinder, hemisphere and sphere; composite bodies and bodies with portion removed
 [Simple problems on the above topics]

Simple Machines
 Definition of effort, velocity ratio, mechanical advantage and efficiency of  a machine and their relationship, law of machines
 Simple and compound machine (Examples)
 Definition of ideal machine, reversible and self locking machine
 Effort lost in friction, Load lost in friction, determination of maximum mechanical advantage and maximum efficiency
 System of pulleys (first, second, third system of pulleys), determination of velocity ratio, mechanical advantage and efficiency
 Working principle and application of wheel and axle, Weston’s Differential Pulley Block , simple screw jack, worm and worm wheel, single and double winch crab. Expression for their velocity ratio and field of their application
 [Simple problems on the above topics]
[ Fluid Mechanics ]
 Introduction:
 Fluids: Real and ideal fluids
 Fluid Mechanics, Hydrostatics, Hydrodynamics, Hydraulics

Properties of Fluids (definition only)
 Mass density, specific weight, specific gravity, viscosity, surface tension  cohesion, adhesion and, capillarity, vapour pressure and compressibility.
 Units of measurement and their conversion

Hydrostatic Pressure:
 Pressure, intensity of pressure, pressure head, Pascal's law and its applications.
 Total pressure, resultant pressure, and centre of pressure.
 Total pressure and centre of pressure on horizontal, vertical and inclined plane surfaces of rectangular, triangular, trapezoidal shapes and circular. (No derivation)

Measurement of Pressure:
 Atmospheric pressure, gauge pressure, vacuum pressure and absolute pressure.
 Piezometer, simple manometer and differential manometer, Bourden gauge and dead weight pressure gauge.

Fundamentals of Fluid Flow:
 Types of Flow: Steady and unsteady flow, laminar and turbulent flow, uniform and nonuniform flow
 Discharge and continuity equation (flow equation) {No derivation}
 Types of hydraulic energy: Potential energy, kinetic energy, pressure energy
 Bernoulli's theorem; statement and description (without proof of theorem)

Flow Measurements (brief description with simple numerical problems)
 Venturimeter and mouthpiece
 Pitot tube
 Orifice and Orificemeter
 Current meters
 Notches and weirs (simple numerical problems)

Flow through Pipes:
 Definition of pipe flow; Reynolds number, laminar and turbulent flow  explained through Reynold's experiment
 Critical velocity and velocity distributions in a pipe for laminar flow
 Head loss in pipe lines due to friction, sudden expansion and sudden contraction, entrance, exit, obstruction and change of direction (No derivation of formula)
 Hydraulic gradient line and total energy line
 Flow from one reservoir to another through a long pipe of uniform cross section (simple problems)
 Pipes in series and parallel
 Water hammer phenomenon and its effects (only definition and description)

Flow through open channels:
 Definition of an open channel, uniform flow and nonuniform flow
 Discharge through channels using
i) Chezy's formula (no derivation)
ii) Manning's formula (no derivation)  Most economical channel sections (no derivation)
i) Rectangular
ii) Trapezoidal  Head loss in open channel due to friction

Hydraulic Pumps:
 Hydraulic pump, reciprocating pump, centrifugal pumps (No numericals and derivations) (may be demonstrated with the help of working models)
[ Surveying  1 ]
 Introduction:
 Basic principles of surveying
 Concept and purpose of surveying, measurementslinear and angular, units of measurements
 Instruments used for taking these measurements, classification based on surveying instruments

Chain surveying:
 Introduction, advantages and disadvantages
 Direct and indirect ranging offsets and recording of field notes

Compass surveying:
 Purpose of compass surveying. Use of prismatic compass: Setting and taking observations
 Concept of following with simple numerical problems:
a) Meridian  Magnetic and true
b) Bearing  Magnetic, True and Arbitrary
c) Whole circle bearing and reduced bearing
d) Fore and back bearing
e) Magnetic dip and declination  Local attraction  causes, detection, errors and corrections, problems on local attraction, magnetic declination and calculation of included angles in a compass traverse

Levelling:
 Purpose of levelling, concept of a level surface, horizontal surface, vertical surface, datum, reduced level and bench marks
 Identification of various parts of Dumpy level and use of Dumpy level, Engineer’ level, Auto level: advantages and disadvantages, use of auto level.
 Concepts of line of collimation, axis of the bubble tube, axis of the telescope and vertical axis
 Levelling staff: single piece, folding, invar precision staff, telescopic
 Temporary adjustment and permanent adjustment of dumpy level by two peg method.
 Concept of back sight, foresight, intermediate sight, change point, to determine reduce levels
 Level book and reduction of levels by
a) Height of collimation method and
b) Rise and fall method  Arithmetic checks, problem on reduction of levels, fly levelling, check leveling and profile levelling (Lsection and Xsection), errors in levelling, permissible limits, reciprocal leveling. Numerical problems.
 Computations of Areas of regular figures and irregular figures. Simpson’s rule: prismatic formula and graphical method use of planimeter for computation of areas, numerical problems

Plane Table Surveying
 Concept, definition of centroid of plain figures and centre of gravity of symmetrical solid bodies
 Determination of centroid of plain and composite lamina using moment method only, centroid of bodies with removed portion
 Determination of center of gravity of solid bodies  cone, cylinder, hemisphere and sphere; composite bodies and bodies with portion removed
 [Simple problems on the above topics]

Simple Machines
 Purpose of plane table surveying, equipment used in plane table survey:
 Setting of a plane table:
(a) Centering
(b) Levelling
(c) Orientation  Methods of plane table surveying
(a) Radiation,
(b) Intersection
(c) Traversing
(d) Resection  Concept of Two point and Three point problems (Concept only)
 Errors in plane table survey and precautions to control them. Testing and adjustment of plane table and alidad