Electrical Engineering ⇒ Topic : Complex Waveforms
So far we have considered sinusoidal waves. However, many electrical waveforms encountered in electrical and electronic equipment (e.g., square wave, sawtooth wave etc.) are not sinusoidal.Complex waves are those which depart from sinusoidal form i.e., they are non-sinusoidal.
A *periodic non-sinusoidal wave of any form (complex waveform) can be considered to be made up of sinusoidal waveforms of various frequencies and amplitudes.
The above statement is the basis of Fourier series. Accordingly, a square waveform can be considered to be made up from a combination of sinusoidal waveforms. Thus any non-sinusoidal quantity i can be expressed as the sum of a number of sinusoidal quantities i1, i2,i3.......... . The frequency of i1 will be the same as that of i and the frequencies of i2, i3... will be integral multiple (2, 3, 4, 5...n) of that of i. In symbols,
If we add **d.c. component I0 to equation (i), it is known as Fourier series.
The term that has the same frequency as i, namely Im1 sin (ωt + Φ1) is called fundamental component;Im2 sin (2ωt + Φ2) , whose frequency is twice that of i (or i1) is called the second harmonic component; Im3 sin (3ωt + Φ3) ) is the third harmonic.
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