Electrical Engineering ⇒ Topic : Disadvantages of Low Power Factor

Sunita
 
Disadvantages of Low Power Factor Since power consumed in AC circuits depends on the power factor, it plays an important role ...............(1) .............. (2) From Eqs. (1) and (2), it is clear that for a fixed P and V_{L}, I_{L} is inversely proportional to power factor (cos Φ). So, the lower the power factor, the larger is the value of I_{L}. The larger current due to poor power factor has the following disadvantages: (1) Large kVA rating of the equipment The large electrical machinery is always rated in kVA. ........... (3) From Eq. (3), kVA rating of the equipment is inversely proportional to the power factor.So, the lower the value of power factor, the higher is the kVA rating. The equipment will be larger in size and hence expensive. (2) Greater conductor size For transmission or distribution of a fixed amount of power at constant voltage, the conductor will have to carry more current at low power factor. This needs larger conductor size. (3) Large copper loss The high current at low p.f. causes more I^{2}R loss. (4) Poor voltage regulation The large current at low power factor causes greater voltage drop in alternators, transformers,transmission lines, and also in the distribution systems. (5) Reduced handling capacity of the system Reactive component of current prevents full utilization of installed capacity  
 
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