Electrical Engineering ⇒ Topic : Following points of complex waveforms
The following points may be noted
(1) The frequency f of the fundamental component is the lowest and is equal to the frequency of the complex wave. The fundamental is also called first harmonic.
(2) The frequency of second harmonic is 2f (twice that of fundamental) and the frequency of third harmonic is 3f (thrice that of fundamental) and so on.
(3) The components of frequencies f 3f, 5f etc. are called odd harmonics and components of frequencies 2f 4f, 6f etc. are called even harmonics.
(4) It is not necessary for all the components to be present in an equation for a complex wave.For example, a sine wave has no harmonics; the only frequency present is the fundamental.
(5) The harmonics are integer multiples of the fundamental frequency. The amplitude of each harmonic decreases as the frequency increases.
(6) Any periodic waveform can be produced by summing sine waves that have proper frequency, amplitude and phase.
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