Electrical Engineering ⇒ Topic : The circuit
Simply an electric circuit consists of three parts: (1) energy source, such as battery or generator, (2) the load or sink, such as lamp or motor, and (3) connecting wires as shown in Fig.(a)
This arrangement represents a simple circuit. A battery is connected to a lamp with two wires. The purpose of the circuit is to transfer energy from source (battery) to the load (lamp). And this is accomplished by the passage of electrons through wires around the circuit
The current flows through the filament of the lamp, causing it to emit visible light. The current flows through the battery by chemical action. A closed circuit is defined as a circuit in which the current has a complete path to flow. When the current path is broken so that current cannot flow, the circuit is called an open circuit.
More specifically, interconnection of two or more simple circuit elements (viz, voltage sources, resistors, inductors and capacitors) is called an electric network. If a network contains at least one closed path, it is called an electric circuit. By definition, a simple circuit element is the mathematical model of two terminal electrical devices, and it can be completely characterised by its voltage and current. Evidently then, a physical circuit must provide means for the transfer of energy.
Broadly, network elements may be classified into four groups, viz.
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